What were protectorates, protected states, mandated territories and trust territories?
Protectorates and protected states
Protectorates and protected states were foreign territories to which British protection was extended in some form.
Protected states were places in which:
- there was a properly organised internal government; and
- Britain controlled only the state's external affairs.
Protectorates were protected territories in which:
- there was no properly organised internal government; and
- Britain not only controlled external matters, such as the protectorate's defence and foreign relations but also established an internal
Britain's involvement in protectorates was similar to its involvement in colonies but they did not have the formal status of colonies.
Protectorates from 1949
- British Solomon Islands
- Kamaran (added in 1954)
- Northern Rhodesia
- Northern Territories of the Gold Coast
- Sierra Leone
Protected states from 1949
- Canton Island
- Fujairah (added in 1952)
- The Malay States (Johore, Pahang, Negri Sembilan, Selangor, Perak, Kedah,
Perlis, Kelantan, and Trengganu)
- The Maldive Islands
- The New Hebrides
- The Persian Gulf States (Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, and the Trucial Sheikdoms of Oman (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dibai, Kalba, Ras al Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al Qaiwain))
Mandated territories and trust territories
A mandated territory was a territory administered by the government of any country in the former British Empire by a mandate from the League of Nations (which later became the United Nations). They were created because, in the 1920 Treaty of Versailles, Germany renounced its claims to its former colonies and, where those countries were unable to become independent, others took responsibility for their government. The United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa accepted these mandates.
A trust territory was a territory administered by the government of any country in the former British Empire under the trusteeship system of the United Nations. Most mandated territories became trust territories under the United Kingdom's Mandated and Trust Territories Act 1947. The others became independent, apart from Palestine, which became part of the new state of Israel, and South West Africa, which continued to be a mandated territory administered by South Africa.
A UK mandated or trust territory was one administered by the British Government. Non-UK mandated or trust territories were administered by Australia, New Zealand, or South Africa.
British nationality law differed depending on whether a territory was a mandated or trust territory, and on whether or not it was a UK mandated or trust territory. This affected, for example, whether or not someone born there would be a British subject.
UK mandated territories after 1920
Non-UK mandated territories after 1920
- Nauru (administered by Australia)
- New Guinea (administered by Australia)
- Solomon Islands (administered by Australia)
- South West Africa (administered by South Africa)
- Western Samoa (administered by New Zealand)
UK trust territories after 1949
Non-UK trust territories after 1949
- Nauru (Australia)
- New Guinea (Australia)
- Solomon Islands (Australia)
- Western Samoa (New Zealand)
UK mandated territories after 1949
Non-UK mandated territories after 1949
- South West Africa (South Africa)